At a distance of more than a hundred kilometers from the former coast of the Aral Sea, the well-preserved remains of the ancient fortress of Ayaz-Kala were discovered in some places. The archaeologists date this finding to the third or second century BC. This is not just a fortress that strengthened the walls of the city. It is a strategically conceived, military fortress, guarding the approaches to the ancient cities of the Kushan Khanate. To be precise, this is not one fortress, but a cascade fortification of three independent fortresses.
Ayaz-Kala 1 is the first fortress. It is one of the most beautiful fortresses of ancient Khorezm. Almost three hectares of rectangular shape was occupied by this fortress. Now only in some places the walls up to a height of ten meters have been preserved. On the territory of this fortress, a lot of different kinds of weapons, arrows, bows, and spears were discovered. As well as inside the walls, there are many characteristic elements that point to the numerous battles at the walls of the fortress. Throughout the perimeter, there were many loopholes for archers, equidistant from each other, towers and multi-tiered galleries. All this represented the bulk of the fortress's defense. Also in the fortress was found a lot of gold products.
Ayaz-Kala 2 is the second fortress, which began to be built in the Kushan era and roughly completed in the 5th-7th century AD. It is a small fortress of elliptical shape, one side leading straight into the city. The fortress served as a fortification guarding the palace, to which was the exit from this fortress. According to the surviving fragments, one can see vaulted walls, domed transitions inside the fortress. The upper part is a crenelated wall with loopholes for archers. The principle of structure and material differ from the fortresses of an earlier period. This building already used raw brick raw, small stones, like gravel, and strengthened all this solution at the base of the fortress.
Ayaz-Kala 3 is the most fortified fortress that sheltered the inner city of a small town. On the territory of the fortress, surrounded by a multitude of towers, a double wall and a complex from the engineering point of view of the construction of the gate, there were several manors, a huge palace, many minarets and labyrinths. The territory, with a total area of about five hectares, was once occupied by vineyards, agricultural plantations, many residential buildings. The entrance with the labyrinth was constructed in a special way. The southern wind that blew for most of the year in these parts, thanks to the unique design of the entrance, carried away dirt and debris from the city by its flow.