One of the oldest settlements of the urban system in Central Asia is located not far from Samarkand. It would be more accurate to say that the remnants and fragments of this settlement circumambulate the present semi-circle of Samarkand, forming a semblance of a crescent around the modern city. Legends attribute the formation of a site of ancient settlement to the mythical ruler of Turan, Afrosiab. However, according to the result of archaeological research, the site of ancient settlement was attributed to the period of Samarkand, which preceded the Mongol conquests.
Apparently, knowing that Chinggis Khan was extremely destructive and his army was devastated, leaving no building in his way, with the approach of the Mongols, the inhabitants left the city and went higher to the hills where they built fortifications for themselves and were hiding from the Mongols for a long time. According to archaeological data, the crafts, trade and religious aspects of civilization were well established in the city.
Numerous quarters, workshops, mosques were found. Excavations are continued and as a result of research, they help shed light on many previously unknown sides of the history of ancient Samarkand. Until now, many fragments of ancient utensils, dishes decorated with ornaments, elements of dresses and decoration, metal products have been found. In the same way, the remains of a large structure were found, in which were found drawings and paintings on the walls in several levels, depicting the life of people, as well as animals, both known and non-existent. The city was fortified with walls, behind which both inhabited buildings and craftsmen were located.
Also, a fortified structure of Shahristan was discovered. At its base in remote times, there was a deep ditch, to which channels with water were supplied, that was filling it. All this was competently designed and built by people. However, there were weaknesses in the entire strengthened urban system. This is evidenced by the remains of the ancient great city destroyed after the conquest by the Mongols.